This factsheet is about how gender inequality fuels the HIV epidemic. Gender based violence (GBV) leads to a higher incidence of unsafe sex and a lower ability to negotiate condom use. Social norms around child marriage, age discordant relationships and early sexual debut can also affect HIV acquisition. Research indicates that economic dependence on male partners or family members makes women and girls more likely to acquire HIV. This factsheet looks at ways to empower women economically, and potentially barriers blocking the way. It also features case studies from around the world.
Gibbs A, Sikweyiya Y, Jewkes R. “I tried to resist and avoid bad friends”: The role of social contexts in shaping the transformation of masculinities in a gender-transformative and livelihood strengthening intervention in South Africa. Men and Masculinities Article first published online: January 1, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X17696173
Gibbs, A., Washington, L., Willan, S., Ntini, N., Khumalo, T., Mbatha, N.& Ferrari, G. (2017). The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics. BMC public health, 17(1), 336.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a significant social, economic and public health problem. No country is immune from this problem and it impacts all socio-economic groups, all ethnicities and all ages. This does not mean it is inevitable; it can be transformed through political will, through increased investment in programmes and policies, and through community support for normative change. The publication has been authored by the Members of Component Two for What Works: Economic and Social Costs of Violence Programme.
Violence persists in sex workers’ relationships with their intimate partners, an intervention and evaluation study, Samvedana Plus, was designed to understand and address violence and HIV risk in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers. Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) is implementing Samvedana Plus, in partnership with Chaitanya AIDS Tadegattuwa Mahila Sangha, a communitybased organisation (CBO) of sex workers in northern Karnataka, India. The findings of the report are related to four broad categories: characteristics of the female sex workers and intimate partner relationships; gender attitudes, social norms and violence acceptance; experience of intimate partner violence, solidarity and self-worth; and STI/HIV risk perceptions, skills for self-protection and condom use among female sex workers.
A study to assess the community level impact of the Gender Centre’s Rural Response System in reducing VAW in Ghana. This presentation features methodology demographics and results, looking at IPV statistics and the prevalence of different forms of IPV.
This report studies the prevalence of peer violence among sixth grade students in Hyderabad. It also seeks to describe associations between socio-economic status, school performance, mental health, gender attitudes, violence at home and peer violence perpetration and victimisation.
A study exploring the nature of VAWG and its effects, the community response to VAWG, and the linkages between economic conditions and VAWG. This study looks at the dominant gender norms for each sex, the causes of household conflict, and the causes and different types of VAWG. It finishes with conclusions and recommendations.