IPV is significantly higher in informal settlements. This study looks at a participatory group-based intervention to reduce IPV through strengthening livelihoods and transforming gender norms. Through a study of socio-demographics and IPV, it becomes clear that simply applying an economic strengthening intervention without accompanying gender transformative interventions may in fact exacerbate the problem of IPV.
Violence against women, recognised globally as a fundamental human rights violation, is widely prevalent across high-, middle-, and lowincome countries. It imposes direct and indirect costs and losses on the well-being of individuals, families and communities, businesses, national economies, social and economic development and political stability. Recently, there has been a growing interest in deriving the associated costs of violence against women. This has coincided with an explosion of costing studies in recent years, particularly after 2000. In this review of the evidence, we provide an assessment of what we have learned and we establish the gaps which still need to be addressed in future costing studies.