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Peer review journal articles

Introduction Samvedana Plus is a multilevel intervention working with sex workers, their intimate partners (IPs) and communities to reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) and to increase condom use within intimate relationships of sex workers in Northern Karnataka, India.
Methods A cluster randomised controlled trial in 47 villages. Female sex workers with IPs in the last 6 months were eligible for baseline (2014), midline (2016) and endline (2017) surveys. 24 villages were randomised to Samvedana Plus and 23 to a wait-list control. Primary outcomes among sex workers included experience of physical and/or sexual IPV or severe physical/sexual IPV in the last 6 months and consistent condom use with their IP in past 30 days. Analyses adjusted for clustering and baseline cluster-level means of outcomes.
Result Baseline (n=620) imbalance was observed with respect to age (33.9 vs 35.2) and IPV (31.4% vs 45.0%). No differences in physical/sexual IPV (8.1% vs 9.0%), severe physical/sexual IPV (6.9% vs 8.7%) or consistent condom use with IPs (62.5% vs 57.3%) were observed by trial arm at end line (n=547). Samvedana Plus was associated with decreased acceptance of IPV (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.94, p=0.025), increased awareness of self-protection strategies (AOR=1.73, 95% CI=1.04–2.89, p=0.035) and solidarity of sex workers around issues of IPV (AOR=1.69, 95% CI=1.02–2.82, p=0.042). We observed an increase in IPV between baseline (25.9%) and midline (63.5%) among women in Samvedana Plus villages but lower in comparison villages (41.8%–44.3%) and a sharp decrease at end line in both arms (~8%).
Conclusion We found no evidence that Samvedana Plus reduced IPV or increased condom use, but it may impact acceptance of IPV, increase knowledge of self-protection strategies and increase sex worker solidarity. Inconsistencies in reported IPV undermined the ability of the trial to assess effectiveness.

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Men whose sexual behaviors place them at risk of HIV often exhibit a “cluster” of behaviors, including alcohol misuse and violence against women. Called the “Substance Abuse, Violence and AIDS (SAVA) syndemic,” this intersecting set of issues is poorly understood among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to determine cross-sectional associations between men's use of alcohol, violence, and HIV risk behaviors using a gendered syndemics lens. We conducted a baseline survey with men in an informal, peri-urban settlement near Johannesburg (Jan–Aug 2016). Audio-assisted, self-completed questionnaires measured an index of risky sex (inconsistent condom use, multiple partnerships, transactional sex), recent violence against women (Multicountry Study instrument), alcohol misuse (Alcohol Use Disorders Tool), and gender attitudes (Gender Equitable Men's Scale). We used logistic regression to test for syndemic interaction on multiplicative and additive scales and structural equation modeling to test assumptions around serially causal epidemics. Of 2454 men, 91.8% reported one or more types of risky sex. A majority of participants reported one or more SAVA conditions (1783, 71.6%). After controlling for socio-demographics, higher scores on the risky sex index were independently predicted by men's recent violence use, problem drinking, and inequitable gender views. Those men reporting all three SAVA conditions had more than 12-fold greater odds of risky sex compared to counterparts reporting no syndemic conditions. Each two-way interaction of alcohol use, gender inequitable views, and IPV perpetration was associated with a relative increase in risky sex on either a multiplicative or additive scale. A structural equation model illustrated that gender norms predict violence, which in turn predict alcohol misuse, increasing both IPV perpetration and risky sex. These data are consistent with a syndemic model of HIV risk among heterosexual men. Targeting intersections between syndemic conditions may help prevent HIV among heterosexual men in peri-urban African settings.

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This paper explores the relationship between changes in individual beliefs and behaviours, couple relationship dynamics and gender norms – and how interventions can influence these. It draws on longitudinal qualitative research with heterosexual couples who participated in the Indashyikirwa programme in Rwanda. The couples followed a curriculum designed to improve relationship skills and reduce the gender-inequitable beliefs, behaviours and norms that underpin intimate partner violence. Qualitative findings show that the programme resulted in moderate, but significant, positive ‘shifts’ in individual beliefs and behaviours, couple relationship dynamics and levels of inequality - increasing men’s engagement in domestic duties, women’s participation in household decision making, and women’s access to economic resources. They also suggest which parts of the couples’ curriculum were most effective in catalysing these changes. However, the data also show that these ‘shifts’ occurred without fully transforming deeply-entrenched beliefs and norms around gender roles and male authority over economic resources. The paper suggests that the persistence of these beliefs and norms constrained the extent of changes among couples – and could potentially constrain their longevity and act as an obstacle to longer-term, larger-scale changes in gender inequalities and violence.

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By Aisling Swaine, Michelle Spearing, Maureen Murphy, Manuel Contreras-Urbina
Published 12 May 2019

This article makes three major contributions to guide researchers and policymakers in addressing VAWG in post-conflict contexts. First, it identifies critical gaps in understanding the intersection between VAWG and post-conflict statebuilding and peacebuilding processes. Second, it presents an ecological model to explore the drivers of VAWG during and after armed conflict. Third, it proposes a conceptual framework for analysing and addressing the intersections of VAWG with both post-conflict statebuilding and peacebuilding. The article concludes that application of this framework can help policymakers shape statebuilding and peacebuilding processes to more effectively institutionalise approaches to VAWG so that post-conflict transitions advance sustainable, positive peace.

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By Maureen Murphy, Jeffrey B. Bingenheimer, Junior Ovince, Mary Ellsberg, Manuel Contreras-Urbina
Published 14 May 2019

Based on secondary analysis of a larger study on VAWG in South Sudan, this article highlights the specific experience of conflict-affected adolescent girls resident in the Juba Protection of Civilian sites. Quantitative data from a cross-sectional household survey shows that the prevalence of non-partner sexual violence (NPSV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) was high among a cohort of girls who were of adolescent age during the 2013 crisis. Direct exposure to armed conflict increased the odds of respondents experiencing NPSV and IPV. Quantitative and qualitative data also showed that patriarchal practices, compounded by poverty and unequal power relationships within the home, remain some of the primary drivers of VAWG even in conflict-affected settings.

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By Alexandra Blackwell, Jean Casey, Rahmah Habeeb, Jeannie Annan, and Kathryn Falb
Published 28 June 2019

The International Rescue Committee conducted an evaluation of a cash programme in Raqqa Governorate, Syria. The aim was to examine the effect of a cash for basic needs programme on outcomes of violence against women, and women’s empowerment. This article draws on qualitative data from interviews with 40 women at the end of the cash programme. It offers evidence of potential increased tension and abuse within both the community and the household for some women whose families received cash, as well as potential increased social protection through repayment of debts and economic independence for others. Both negative and positive effects could be seen. While the objective of the cash programme was not to influence underlying power dynamics, this research shows it is necessary to integrate gender-sensitive approaches into programme design and monitoring to reduce risk to women of diverse identities.

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Corboz, J., Siddiq, W., Hemat, O., Chirwa, E. D., & Jewkes, R. (2019). What works to prevent violence against children in Afghanistan? Findings of an interrupted time series evaluation of a school-based peace education and community social norms change intervention in Afghanistan. PLoS one, 14(8), e0220614.

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Stern, E., & Mirembe, J. (2017). Intersectionalities of formality of marital status and women’s risk and protective factors for intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Agenda, 31(1), 116-127.

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Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., Willan, S., Al Mamun, M., Parvin, K., Yu, M., & Naved, R. (2019). Workplace violence in Bangladesh's garment industry. Social Science & Medicine, 112383

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McGhee, S., Shrestha, B., Ferguson, G., Shrestha, P. N., Bergenfeld, I., & Clark, C. J. (2019). “Change Really Does Need to Start From Home”: Impact of an Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Strategy Among Married Couples in Nepal. Journal of interpersonal violence, 0886260519839422.

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Gibbs, A., Myrttinen, H., Washington, L., Sikweyiya, Y., & Jewkes, R. (2019). Constructing, reproducing and challenging masculinities in a participatory intervention in urban informal settlements in South Africa. Culture, health & sexuality, 1-16.

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Corboz, J., Gibbs, A., & Jewkes, R. (2019). Bacha posh in Afghanistan: factors associated with raising a girl as a boy. Culture, health & sexuality, 1-14.

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Alvarado, G., Fenny, A. P., Dakey, S., Mueller, J. L., O’Brien-Milne, L., Crentsil, A. O., ... & Schwenke, C. (2018). The health-related impacts and costs of violence against women and girls on survivors, households and communities in Ghana. Journal of public health in Africa, 9(2).

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Izugbara, C., Muthuri, S., Muuo, S., Egesa, C., Franchi, G., Mcalpine, A., ... & Hossain, M. (2018). ‘They Say Our Work Is Not Halal’: Experiences and Challenges of Refugee Community Workers Involved in Gender-based Violence Prevention and Care in Dadaab, Kenya. Journal of refugee studies, fey055-fey055.
 

Javalkar, P., Platt, L., Prakash, R., Beattie, T., Bhattacharjee, P., Thalinja, R., ... & Davey, C. (2019). What determines violence among female sex workers in an intimate partner relationship? Findings from North Karnataka, south India. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 350.

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Willan, S., Kerr-Wilson, A., Parke, A., & Gibbs, A. (2019). A study on capacity development in the “What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women” programme. Development in Practice, 1-12. doi:10.1080/09614524.2019.1615410

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Gibbs, A., Hatcher, A., Jewkes, R., Sikweyiya, Y., Washington, L., Dunkle, K., ... & Christofides, N. (2019). Associations Between Lifetime Traumatic Experiences and HIV-Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Living in Informal Settlements in South Africa: A Cross-Sectional Analysis and Structural Equation Model. JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 81(2), 193-201.

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Addo-Lartey, A., Ogum Alangea, D., Sikweyiya, Y., Chirwa, E., Coker-Appiah, D., Jewkes, R. and Adanu, R. (2019). Rural response system to prevent violence against women: methodology for a community randomised controlled trial in the central region of Ghana. Global Health Action, 12(1), p.1612604.

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Hatcher, A. M., Stöckl, H., McBride, R. S., Khumalo, M., & Christofides, N. (2019). Pathways From Food Insecurity to Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among Peri-Urban Men in South Africa. American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

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Stern, E., & Carlson, K. (2019). Indashyikirwa Women’s Safe Spaces: Informal Response for Survivors of IPV within a Rwandan Prevention Programme. Social Sciences, 8(3), 76.

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Closson, K., Hatcher, A., Sikweyiya, Y., Washington, L., Mkhwanazi, S., Jewkes, R., ... & Gibbs, A. (2019). Gender role conflict and sexual health and relationship practices amongst young men living in urban informal settlements in South Africa. Culture, health & sexuality, 1-17.

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Cislaghi, B., Denny, E. K., Cissé, M., Gueye, P., Shrestha, B., Shrestha, P. N., ... & Clark, C. J. (2019). Changing Social Norms: the Importance of “Organized Diffusion” for Scaling Up Community Health Promotion and Women Empowerment Interventions. Prevention Science, 1-11.

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Jewkes, R., Corboz, J., & Gibbs, A. (2019). Violence against Afghan women by husbands, mothers-in-law and siblings-in-law/siblings: Risk markers and health consequences in an analysis of the baseline of a randomised controlled trial. PloS one, 14(2), e0211361.

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Willan, S., Ntini, N., Gibbs, A., & Jewkes, R. (2019). Exploring young women’s constructions of love and strategies to navigate violent relationships in South African informal settlements. Culture, health & sexuality, 1-15.
 
Clark, C. J., Ferguson, G., Shrestha, B., Shrestha, P. N., Batayeh, B., Bergenfeld, I., ... & McGhee, S. (2019). Mixed methods assessment of women’s risk of intimate partner violence in Nepal. BMC women's health, 19(1), 20.
 

Stern, E., & Heise, L. (2018). Sexual coercion, consent and negotiation: processes of change amongst couples participating in the Indashyikirwa programme in Rwanda. Culture, health & sexuality, 1-16.

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Parvin, K., Al Mamun, M., Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., & Naved, R. T. (2018). The pathways between female garment workers’ experience of violence and development of depressive symptoms. PLoS one, 13(11), e0207485.

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Gibbs, A., Dunkle, K., Willan, S., Jama-Shai, N., Washington, L., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Are women’s experiences of emotional and economic intimate partner violence associated with HIV-risk behaviour? A cross-sectional analysis of young women in informal settlements in South Africa. AIDS Care, 1-8.

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Gupta, J., Cardoso, L. F., Ferguson, G., Shrestha, B., Shrestha, P. N., Harris, C., ... & Clark, C. J. (2018). Disability status, intimate partner violence and perceived social support among married women in three districts of the Terai region of Nepal. BMJ Global Health, 3(5), e000934.

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Naved, R. T., Al Mamun, M., Parvin, K., Willan, S., Gibbs, A., Yu, M., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against female garment workers from selected factories in Bangladesh. PloS one, 13(11), e0204725.

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Khuwaja, H. M. A., Karmaliani, R., McFarlane, J., Somani, R., Gulzar, S., Ali, T. S., ... & Jewkes, R. (2018). The intersection of school corporal punishment and associated factors: Baseline results from a randomized controlled trial in Pakistan. PLoS one, 13(10), e0206032.

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Jewkes, R., Corboz, J., & Gibbs, A. (2018). Trauma exposure and IPV experienced by Afghan women: Analysis of the baseline of a randomised controlled trial. PLoS one, 13(10), e0201974.  

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Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., Willan, S., & Washington, L. (2018). Associations between poverty, mental health and substance use, gender power, and intimate partner violence amongst young (18-30) women and men in urban informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study and structural equation model. PLoS one, 13(10), e0204956.

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Hatcher, A. M., Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., McBride, R., Peacock, D., & Christofides, N. (n.d.). Effect of Childhood Poverty and Trauma on Adult Depressive Symptoms Among Young Men in Peri-Urban South African Settlements. Journal of Adolescent Health.

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Alangea, D. O., Addo-Lartey, A. A., Sikweyiya, Y., Chirwa, E. D., Coker-Appiah, D., Jewkes, R., & Adanu, R. M. K. (2018). Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among women in four districts of the central region of Ghana: Baseline findings from a cluster randomised controlled trial. PloS one, 13(7), e0200874.

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Cardoso, L. F., Clark, C. J., Rivers, K., Ferguson, G., Shrestha, B., & Gupta, J. (2018). Menstrual restriction prevalence and association with intimate partner violence among Nepali women. BMJ Sex Reprod Health, bmjsrh-2017.

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Blanchard, A. K., Nair, S. G., Bruce, S. G., Ramanaik, S., Thalinja, R., Murthy, S., ... & Isac, S. (2018). A community-based qualitative study on the experience and understandings of intimate partner violence and HIV vulnerability from the perspectives of female sex workers and male intimate partners in North Karnataka state, India. BMC women's health, 18(1), 66.

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Bhattacharjee, P., Campbell, L., Thalinja, R., Nair, S., Doddamane, M., Ramanaik, S., ... & Beattie, T. S. (2018). Understanding the Relationship Between Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Partners: Lessons and Initial Findings From Participatory Research in North Karnataka, South India. Health education & behavior, 1090198118763934.

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Gibbs, A., Dunkle, K., Washington, L., Willan, S., Shai, N., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Childhood traumas as a risk factor for HIV-risk behaviours amongst young women and men living in urban informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study. PloS one, 13(4), e0195369.

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Gibbs, A., Corboz, J., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Factors associated with recent intimate partner violence experience amongst currently married women in Afghanistan and health impacts of IPV: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 593.

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Gibbs, A., Dunkle, K., Washington, L., Willan, S., Shai, N., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Childhood traumas as a risk factor for HIV-risk behaviours amongst young women and men living in urban informal settlements in South Africa: A cross-sectional study. PloS one, 13(4), e0195369.

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Chirwa, E. D., Sikweyiya, Y., Addo-Lartey, A. A., Alangea, D. O., Coker-Appiah, D., Adanu, R. M., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Prevalence and risk factors of physical or sexual intimate violence perpetration amongst men in four districts in the central region of Ghana: Baseline findings from a cluster randomised controlled trial. PloS one, 13(3), e0191663. 

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Christofides, N. J., Hatcher, A. M., Pino, A., Rebombo, D., McBride, R. S., Anderson, A., & Peacock, D. (2018). A cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effect of community mobilisation and advocacy on men’s use of violence in periurban South Africa: study protocol. BMJ Open, 8(3), e017579.

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Gibbs A, Dunkle K, Jewkes R (2018) Emotional and economic intimate partner violence as key drivers of depression and suicidal ideation:A cross-sectional study among young women in informal settlements in South Africa. PLoS ONE 13 (4): e0194885. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0194885

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Al Mamun, M., Parvin, K., Yu, M., Wan, J., Willan, S., Gibbs, A., ... & Naved, R. T. (2018). The HERrespect intervention to address violence against female garment workers in Bangladesh: study protocol for a quasi-experimental trial. BMC public health, 18(1), 512.  

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Stern, E., Martins, S., Stefanik, L., Uwimpuhwe, S., & Yaker, R. (2018). Lessons learned from implementing Indashyikirwa in Rwanda-an adaptation of the SASA! approach to prevent and respond to intimate partner violence. Evaluation and program planning, 71, 58-67.

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Corboz, J., Hemat, O., Siddiq, W., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Children's peer violence perpetration and victimization: Prevalence and associated factors among school children in Afghanistan. PLoS one, 13(2), e0192768.

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Gibbs, A., Corboz, J., Shafiq, M., Marofi, F., Mecagni, A., Mann, C., ... & Jewkes, R. (2018). An individually randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of the Women for Women International Programme in reducing intimate partner violence and strengthening livelihoods amongst women in Afghanistan: trial design, methods and baseline findings. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 164.

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Stern, E., & Niyibizi, L. L. (2018). Shifting Perceptions of Consequences of IPV Among Beneficiaries of Indashyikirwa: An IPV Prevention Program in Rwanda. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 0886260517752156.

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Gibbs, A., Jewkes, R., Karim, F., Marofi, F., & Corboz, J. (2018). Understanding how Afghan women utilise a gender transformative and economic empowerment intervention: A qualitative study. Global Public Health, 1-11.

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Clark, C. J., Ferguson, G., Shrestha, B., Shrestha, P. N., Oakes, J. M., Gupta, J., ... & Yount, K. M. (2018). Social norms and women's risk of intimate partner violence in Nepal. Social Science & Medicine.

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Stern, E., Heise, L., & McLean, L. (2018). The doing and undoing of male household decision-making and economic authority in Rwanda and its implications for gender transformative programming. Culture, health & sexuality, 20(9), 976-991.

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Jewkes, R., Fulu, E., Naved, R. T., Chirwa, E., Dunkle, K., Haardörfer, R., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2017). Women’s and men’s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women’s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific. PLoS medicine, 14(9), e1002381.

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Saeed Ali T , Karmaliani. R,, Mcfarlane. J., Khuwaja. H.M.A; Somani Y, Chirwa E.D.,& Jewkes. R. (2017). Attitude towards Gender Roles and violence against women and Girls (VAWG): Baseline Findings from an RCT of 1,752 Youth in Pakistan. Global Health Action, 10, 1342454

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Stern, E., and Niyaratunga, R. (2017). A process review of the Indashyikirwa couples curriculum to prevent intimate partner violence and support healthy, equitable relationships in Rwanda. Journal of Social Sciences: Special Edition on Select Papers from Conference on Global Status of Women and Girls. 6, 63; doi:10.3390/socsci6020063

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Kane J, Skavenski Van wyk S, Murray SM, Bolton P, Melendez F, Kmett Danielson C, Chimponda P, Munthali S, Murray LK. (2017) Testing the effectiveness of a transdiagnostic treatment approach in reducing intimate partner violence and alcohol abuse among families in Zambia: Study protocol of the Violence and Alcohol Treatment (VATU) trial. Global Mental Health, 4 (18).

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Asad, N.; Karmaliani,R.; McFarlane,J.; Bhamani, SS.; Somani, Y.; Chirwa, E. & Jewkes, R. (2017). The Intersection of Adolescent Depression and Peer Violence: Baseline Results from A Randomized Controlled Trial of 1,752 Youth in Pakistan. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 22, No. 4, 2017, pp. 232–241

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Clark, C. J., Spencer, R. A., Shrestha, B., Ferguson, G., Oakes, J. M., & Gupta, J. (2017). Evaluating a multicomponent social behaviour change communication strategy to reduce intimate partner violence among married couples: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial in Nepal. BMC public health, 17(1), 75.

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Gibbs, A., Washington, L., Willan, S., Ntini, N., Khumalo, T., Mbatha, N.& Ferrari, G. (2017). The Stepping Stones and Creating Futures intervention to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV-risk behaviours in Durban, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial, and baseline characteristics. BMC public health, 17(1), 336.

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 Shai, N.; Pradhan G.D.; Chirwa, E.; Shrestha, R.; Adhikari, A.; Kerr, A. Factors associated with IPV victimization and perpetration by men in migrant communities of Nepal

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