Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a widely recognised human rights violation with serious consequences for the health and well-being of women, with ramifications for households, businesses, communities and society overall. Even though violence against women is widely accepted as a fundamental human right and public health issue, its wider impact on development is being recognised only recently. There are only few studies that estimate the costs of VAWG.
It is well established that violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a human rights violation and public health issue. Worldwide, one in three women report experiencing some form of physical and/or sexual violence, predominantly perpetrated by a partner or ex-partner, over their lifetime (WHO 2013). More recently, there is a growing recognition of the wider economic and social costs of VAWG for individuals, the community, businesses, society and the economy.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a widely recognised human rights violation with serious consequences for the health and well-being of women and their families. However, the wider ramifications of violence against women for businesses, communities, economies and societies are only recently being recognised. Despite this recognition, there are few studies exploring how economic and social impacts of VAWG affect economic growth, development and social stability. In this paper, applying the social accounting approach, we outline the ripple effects of VAWG from the individual micro-level impacts to the macroeconomy.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. VAWG also has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but ripple through society and the economy at large. The threat VAWG poses to the social fabric of the country and its impacts on economic development have not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in Pakistan.
Women for Women International aims to create a world in which every woman can determine the course of her life and reach her full potential. We have worked with half a million women across eight conflict-affected countries since 1993.
We serve the most marginalized women in conflict-affected countries – as they are the most at risk to be left behind – and help them move from isolation and poverty to self-sufficiency and empowerment.
Changes Over Time in Women’s Experiences of Violence & Wellbeing
Cash and voucher assistance (CVA) has quickly become one of most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. In humanitarian contexts, cash assistance has been shown to have significant positive impacts on food security and basic needs for households, helping them to withstand conflict-related economic shocks and market fluctuations, and reducing their reliance on negative coping.
Humanitarian cash transfer programming has become one of the most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. This International Rescue Committee (IRC) study is among the first to explore the potential impact that cash transfer programming may have on violence against women and girls (VAWG) in acute settings. In conflict and emergency settings, women and girls are vulnerable to increased violence, exploitation, and harm to their physical and mental health.
This report summarises the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to Pakistan. It provides an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals and households, businesses and communities, and the national economy and society. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on economic productivity and wellbeing, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
This report provides a summary of the key ndings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project from Ghana. It also provides an overview of the costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals, households, businesses and the economy. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on wellbeing and economic productivity, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is one of the most widespread human rights violations. VAWG is a signi cant social, economic and public health problem. Globally, 35% of women have experienced physical/sexual IPV or non-partner sexual violence in their lives. We know that this violence has implications for women’s health and wellbeing; however, we have less understanding about the impacts of VAWG on communities, businesses, and the national economy. While it has been estimated that violence against women and girls costs the global economy about US$8t, there are few studies, particularly of developing countries, that outline the national-level economic costs of such violence. Similarly, few studies explicitly analyse the social costs of VAWG.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. Further, VAWG is an under-examined, but crucial component of the overall crisis in South Sudan. VAWG has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised either in South Sudan or internationally. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but also ripple through society and the economy at large. The impacts of VAWG on economic development has not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in South Sudan.
This report presents a short summary of the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to South Sudan. It is intended to provide an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) in South Sudan that can be used to deepen understanding, and act as an advocacy tool to encourage investment in efforts to address VAWG.
This study draws on three case countries – Nepal, Sierra Leone and South Sudan – to address gaps in evidence and understanding on violence against women and girls (VAWG) during post-conflict transition. It highlights the potential for state-building and peacebuilding processes to address VAWG, and the effect this has in advancing sustainable peace.
This is the first time that a systematic approach has been taken to bridge the gap between VAWG and post-conflict state-building / peace-building policies and processes. The study was led by the George Washington Institute (GWI), CARE International UK and International Rescue Committee (IRC).
This report presents the evaluation results of a project to curb levels of VAWG in rural Tajikistan, where around 60 per cent of women experience sexual, physical and emotional violence. Baseline research found that drivers include gender norms, social pressure, poverty, food insecurity, mental health issues, and alcohol and substance abuse. The project worked with 80 families across four villages, running weekly sessions to improve behaviours, relationships and communication, and also strengthening , livelihoods and financial management skills. Grants were given, in the form of livestock and equipment, to aid income generating activities, and the report outlines the success in reducing violence and making relationships stronger and more equitable.
Many Afghan children experience violence both at home, at the hands of parents, and at school, both from their peers and from teachers inflicting corporal punishment. This report examines the effectiveness of HTAC’s school-based Peace Education scheme, as implemented across 20 schools in the Jawzjan province. HTAC also implemented community-based activities aimed at preventing violence, through the training of community leaders and parents in conflict resolution and women’s rights, reinforced with positive radio messaging. The report presents the final of Help the Afghan Children’s (HTAC’s) school-based peace education and community-based social norms change intervention and is intended to raise awareness among governmental and non-governmental organisations, donors and policy makers about what works to prevent violence against children.
Summary Report 2017
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a serious human rights violation and a significant global health and security issue. Despite the progress made in addressing VAWG since the landmark Fourth World Conference on Women, VAWG remains a pandemic issue. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 35% of women globally experience sexual and/or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) or sexual assaulta at some point in their lives. There is some evidence that indicates that sexual violence against both women and men increase during conflict. The global prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in complex humanitarian emergencies is estimated to be 21.4%, suggesting that approximately one in five women who are refugees or displaced by an emergency experience sexual violence. Recent studies indicate that IPV may actually be more common than conflictrelated sexual assault. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution, as both IPV and conflict-related violence are under-reported in most settings.
In the Dadaab refugee camps in north-eastern Kenya, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE International (CARE) have implemented programmes that aim to both respond to and prevent GBV. A cornerstone of this work has been to train refugees, known as refugee community workers, to deliver aspects of GBV prevention and response work in order to develop a broader implementation of traditional GBV outreach, community mobilisation, and case management.
Between 2014 and 2017, research co-led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC), in collaboration with IRC and CARE, was conducted to assess this model and better understand its feasibility, acceptability, and influence among female survivors of GBV accessing care. This report presents the findings of that research.
Authors: Ballantine, C., Fenny, A., Asante, F. and Duvvury, N.1
South Sudan is a country devastated by war. Since the end of colonial rule, there have been few years when the country has not been affected by conflict. Against this backdrop, the population has largely held to traditional values and close family ties. The world’s newest independent country, it is dominated by strong traditions and low levels of Western-style development. South Sudan shares land borders with 6 countries, making its stability a concern across the Horn of Africa (Frontier Economics et al. 2015). Even as war and conflict persist, so too does daily life, although the social and economic life of the country have been profoundly eroded by constant conflicts. The basis of South Sudan’s development has been, and will remain, its population. The wellbeing and status of women is a fundamental part of this.
Baseline Evaluation of a Peace Education and Prevention of Violence Program in Jawzjan province, Afghanistan
This report presents the findings of a baseline study conducted to evaluate a peace education and prevention of violence intervention implemented by Help the Afghan Children (HTAC) in Jawzjan province, Afghanistan. This intervention is being implemented and evaluated as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls? Global Programme, funded by UK aid.
HTAC’s intervention aims to prevent violence perpetrated against children and between children by implementing peace education programming in schools and communities based on a comprehensive peace education curriculum and complemented by interventions aimed to reduce teacher use of corporal punishment, and work with families and communities to promote more equitable gender norms and reduce the use of violence against women and children.
The baseline study involved surveying 770 students (350 boys and 420 girls) in grades seven and eight, and 400 teachers (85 male teachers and 315 female teachers), in 11 schools in Jawzjan province where HTAC is implementing its peace education curriculum.
Main Results Report 2017
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a serious human rights violation and a significant global health and security issue. Studies suggest that the rates, perpetrators and types of VAWG fluctuate during conflict; and there is some evidence that sexual violence against both women and men increases during conflict. The global prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in humanitarian crises is estimated to be 21.4%, suggesting that approximately one in five women who are refugees or displaced by an emergency experience sexual violence. Recent studies indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) may be more common than conflict-related sexual assault; however, both IPV and conflict-related violence are under-reported in these settings. Though several studies have collected robust data on VAWG in humanitarian settings, many experts argue that our overall understanding of the issue remains limited.