Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. VAWG also has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but ripple through society and the economy at large. The threat VAWG poses to the social fabric of the country and its impacts on economic development have not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in Pakistan.
Women for Women International aims to create a world in which every woman can determine the course of her life and reach her full potential. We have worked with half a million women across eight conflict-affected countries since 1993.
We serve the most marginalized women in conflict-affected countries – as they are the most at risk to be left behind – and help them move from isolation and poverty to self-sufficiency and empowerment.
Changes Over Time in Women’s Experiences of Violence & Wellbeing
Cash and voucher assistance (CVA) has quickly become one of most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. In humanitarian contexts, cash assistance has been shown to have significant positive impacts on food security and basic needs for households, helping them to withstand conflict-related economic shocks and market fluctuations, and reducing their reliance on negative coping.
Humanitarian cash transfer programming has become one of the most widely used modalities of aid in humanitarian crises. This International Rescue Committee (IRC) study is among the first to explore the potential impact that cash transfer programming may have on violence against women and girls (VAWG) in acute settings. In conflict and emergency settings, women and girls are vulnerable to increased violence, exploitation, and harm to their physical and mental health.
This report summarises the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to Pakistan. It provides an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals and households, businesses and communities, and the national economy and society. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on economic productivity and wellbeing, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
This report provides a summary of the key ndings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project from Ghana. It also provides an overview of the costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) to individuals, households, businesses and the economy. Findings show the heavy drag that VAWG imposes on wellbeing and economic productivity, and the need to invest urgently in scaling up efforts to prevent violence.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is one of the most widespread human rights violations. VAWG is a signi cant social, economic and public health problem. Globally, 35% of women have experienced physical/sexual IPV or non-partner sexual violence in their lives. We know that this violence has implications for women’s health and wellbeing; however, we have less understanding about the impacts of VAWG on communities, businesses, and the national economy. While it has been estimated that violence against women and girls costs the global economy about US$8t, there are few studies, particularly of developing countries, that outline the national-level economic costs of such violence. Similarly, few studies explicitly analyse the social costs of VAWG.
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a challenge to public health. Further, VAWG is an under-examined, but crucial component of the overall crisis in South Sudan. VAWG has economic and social costs that have not been adequately recognised either in South Sudan or internationally. These costs not only impact individual women and their families but also ripple through society and the economy at large. The impacts of VAWG on economic development has not been adequately investigated, analysed or quantified in South Sudan.
This report presents a short summary of the key findings of the What Works to Prevent Violence: Economic and Social Costs project relating to South Sudan. It is intended to provide an overview of the social and economic costs of violence against women and girls (VAWG) in South Sudan that can be used to deepen understanding, and act as an advocacy tool to encourage investment in efforts to address VAWG.
This study draws on three case countries – Nepal, Sierra Leone and South Sudan – to address gaps in evidence and understanding on violence against women and girls (VAWG) during post-conflict transition. It highlights the potential for state-building and peacebuilding processes to address VAWG, and the effect this has in advancing sustainable peace.
This is the first time that a systematic approach has been taken to bridge the gap between VAWG and post-conflict state-building / peace-building policies and processes. The study was led by the George Washington Institute (GWI), CARE International UK and International Rescue Committee (IRC).
This report presents the evaluation results of a project to curb levels of VAWG in rural Tajikistan, where around 60 per cent of women experience sexual, physical and emotional violence. Baseline research found that drivers include gender norms, social pressure, poverty, food insecurity, mental health issues, and alcohol and substance abuse. The project worked with 80 families across four villages, running weekly sessions to improve behaviours, relationships and communication, and also strengthening , livelihoods and financial management skills. Grants were given, in the form of livestock and equipment, to aid income generating activities, and the report outlines the success in reducing violence and making relationships stronger and more equitable.
Many Afghan children experience violence both at home, at the hands of parents, and at school, both from their peers and from teachers inflicting corporal punishment. This report examines the effectiveness of HTAC’s school-based Peace Education scheme, as implemented across 20 schools in the Jawzjan province. HTAC also implemented community-based activities aimed at preventing violence, through the training of community leaders and parents in conflict resolution and women’s rights, reinforced with positive radio messaging. The report presents the final of Help the Afghan Children’s (HTAC’s) school-based peace education and community-based social norms change intervention and is intended to raise awareness among governmental and non-governmental organisations, donors and policy makers about what works to prevent violence against children.
Summary Report 2017
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a serious human rights violation and a significant global health and security issue. Despite the progress made in addressing VAWG since the landmark Fourth World Conference on Women, VAWG remains a pandemic issue. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 35% of women globally experience sexual and/or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) or sexual assaulta at some point in their lives. There is some evidence that indicates that sexual violence against both women and men increase during conflict. The global prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in complex humanitarian emergencies is estimated to be 21.4%, suggesting that approximately one in five women who are refugees or displaced by an emergency experience sexual violence. Recent studies indicate that IPV may actually be more common than conflictrelated sexual assault. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution, as both IPV and conflict-related violence are under-reported in most settings.
In the Dadaab refugee camps in north-eastern Kenya, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and CARE International (CARE) have implemented programmes that aim to both respond to and prevent GBV. A cornerstone of this work has been to train refugees, known as refugee community workers, to deliver aspects of GBV prevention and response work in order to develop a broader implementation of traditional GBV outreach, community mobilisation, and case management.
Between 2014 and 2017, research co-led by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC), in collaboration with IRC and CARE, was conducted to assess this model and better understand its feasibility, acceptability, and influence among female survivors of GBV accessing care. This report presents the findings of that research.
Authors: Ballantine, C., Fenny, A., Asante, F. and Duvvury, N.1
South Sudan is a country devastated by war. Since the end of colonial rule, there have been few years when the country has not been affected by conflict. Against this backdrop, the population has largely held to traditional values and close family ties. The world’s newest independent country, it is dominated by strong traditions and low levels of Western-style development. South Sudan shares land borders with 6 countries, making its stability a concern across the Horn of Africa (Frontier Economics et al. 2015). Even as war and conflict persist, so too does daily life, although the social and economic life of the country have been profoundly eroded by constant conflicts. The basis of South Sudan’s development has been, and will remain, its population. The wellbeing and status of women is a fundamental part of this.
Baseline Evaluation of a Peace Education and Prevention of Violence Program in Jawzjan province, Afghanistan
This report presents the findings of a baseline study conducted to evaluate a peace education and prevention of violence intervention implemented by Help the Afghan Children (HTAC) in Jawzjan province, Afghanistan. This intervention is being implemented and evaluated as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls? Global Programme, funded by UK aid.
HTAC’s intervention aims to prevent violence perpetrated against children and between children by implementing peace education programming in schools and communities based on a comprehensive peace education curriculum and complemented by interventions aimed to reduce teacher use of corporal punishment, and work with families and communities to promote more equitable gender norms and reduce the use of violence against women and children.
The baseline study involved surveying 770 students (350 boys and 420 girls) in grades seven and eight, and 400 teachers (85 male teachers and 315 female teachers), in 11 schools in Jawzjan province where HTAC is implementing its peace education curriculum.
Main Results Report 2017
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a serious human rights violation and a significant global health and security issue. Studies suggest that the rates, perpetrators and types of VAWG fluctuate during conflict; and there is some evidence that sexual violence against both women and men increases during conflict. The global prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in humanitarian crises is estimated to be 21.4%, suggesting that approximately one in five women who are refugees or displaced by an emergency experience sexual violence. Recent studies indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) may be more common than conflict-related sexual assault; however, both IPV and conflict-related violence are under-reported in these settings. Though several studies have collected robust data on VAWG in humanitarian settings, many experts argue that our overall understanding of the issue remains limited.
This report offers a comprehensive review of the annual What Works scientific meeting that took place over two days in July 2017 in Pretoria, South Africa. The meeting, and subsequent report, focused on the analysis of research from the previous year, and a study of how to use the research to influence VAWG policy and programming going forward. The meeting focused on four key thematic areas: Poverty and the Role of Economic Empowerment in VAWG Prevention; The Intersection Between Violence Against Women and Girls and Violence Against Children; Violence and Disabilities; and VAWG in Conflict and Humanitarian Settings. Other areas of interest included Emerging Findings in a Nutshell; Types and Prevalence of VAWG; and Synergies across projects.
This study presents the results of the formative research phase of a larger project that was funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and that was supported by the ‘What Works’ consortium to prevent violence against women and girls (VAWG). This project titled: “Utilising Innovative Media to End Violence against Women and Girls Through community Education and Outreach” was undertaken in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). It was implemented by Ma’an Network in strategic collaboration with 16 local partner non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the oPt. It focuses on all areas of the West Bank and Gaza. The formative research was carried out by the Arab World for Research and Development (AWRAD)…
This report covers the third capacity development workshop under the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) programme, held in Pretoria, South Africa from 3rd to 4th July 2017. It was an opportunity for implementers, researchers and technical staff to share learning and build skills across the programme. The workshop was structured around three broad themes: Building core skills on research uptake; relationship building and technical sharing between grantees and the What Works consortium members; and supporting south-to-south learning. This report summarises the highlights and key messages from each of the sessions.
This report explores the key findings of a baseline quantitative household survey undertaken across 15 communities in Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in July 2015. The survey was conducted as part of the integrated research component of Tearfund’s project ‘Engaging with Faith Groups to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict-affected Communities’, which is funded by UK aid from the UK government as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls? Global Programme.
This is the Mid Term Review (MTR) report of the DFID-funded, What Works to Prevent Violence
Against Women and Girls programme. Our evaluation objectives are, to:
IMC Worldwide was commissioned, in partnership with the University of Portsmouth (UoP) and CommsConsult, to design and deliver the mid-term (March 2017). Following almost immediately after the September - December 2016 inception phase, the evaluation team began the MTR in late January 2017 and finished on the 10th March 2017. This MTR timeline was very compressed, at the request of DFID, to provide information for DFID’s Annual Review (AR) of the programme.
The core team consists of Dr. Sheena Crawford (Team Leader), Dr Tamsin Bradley (Research Lead, University of Portsmouth (UoP), and Megan Lloyd-Laney (Research Uptake Lead; CommsConsult). Kate Conroy (Evaluation Specialist, IMC Worldwide), Professor Ruth Pearson (Professor Emerita, University of Leeds), and Dr Zara Ramsay (UoP) are additional evaluation team members, and Laura French-Constant (CommsConsult) provided Research Uptake (RU) inputs.
This report summarises the findings of the formative research phase of the ‘Living with dignity’ project, which is part of the broader ‘What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls’ programme funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). It is based on qualitative field research conducted in the four target villages of the project, two of which were in Penjikent district, and two in Jomi district in Tajikistan, using focus group discussions and in- depth interviews conducted in November and December 2015.
This report is Volume 5 of the quarterly no-fee, open-access, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to what works in global health programmes. The publication includes editorials, commentaries, data visualisations, original articles, reviews, methodologies, field action reports, student articles and letters to the editor.
Intersections between traditional gender norms, women’s economic conditions and exposure to violence against women and girls: formative research in migrant communities of Baglung district, Nepal. This report summarises the findings of the formative research phase of the ‘Sammanit Jeevan’ project, based on qualitative field research conducted in two villages in the Baglung district of Nepal. The research focused on the following key areas:
To be published soon.
This Working Paper provides the background for a project aiming to illustrate the invisible drag that VAWG places at every level of the Pakistani economy and society: on families, communities, businesses, institutions, and on the country as a whole. This is a three-year multi-country project that estimates the costs of VAWG, both social and economic, to individuals and households, businesses and communities, and states. It breaks new ground in understanding the impact of VAWG on community cohesion, economic stability and development, and will provide further evidence for governments and the international community to address violence against women and girls globally. This paper outlines the nature of VAWG in Pakistan, and the social and economic context in which it occurs. It begins with an introduction to the status of women in Pakistan, and the prevalence and types of VAWG that affect them. It explores the various contexts that are affected by violence: economic, social and political, and discusses the action that has been taken to address violence to date. It goes on to identify some literature on the costs of violence to society and the economy, and to highlight the gaps in the literature, which this project aims to fill.
This working paper is an introduction to the analysis of the social and economic impacts of violence against women and girls in Ghana. This is a three-year multi-country project that estimates the costs of VAWG, both social and economic, to individuals and households, businesses and communities, and states. It breaks new ground in understanding the impact of VAWG on community cohesion, economic stability and development, and will provide further evidence for governments and the international community to address violence against women and girls globally. This paper outlines the nature of VAWG in Ghana, and the social and economic context in which it occurs. It begins with an introduction to the status of women in Ghana, and the prevalence and types of VAWG. It explores the various contexts that are affected by violence: economic, social and political, and discusses the action that has been taken to address violence to date. It goes on to identify some literature on the costs of violence to society and the economy, and to highlight the gaps in the literature, which this project aims to fill.
Violence persists in sex workers’ relationships with their intimate partners, an intervention and evaluation study, Samvedana Plus, was designed to understand and address violence and HIV risk in the intimate partnerships of female sex workers. Karnataka Health Promotion Trust (KHPT) is implementing Samvedana Plus, in partnership with Chaitanya AIDS Tadegattuwa Mahila Sangha, a communitybased organisation (CBO) of sex workers in northern Karnataka, India. The findings of the report are related to four broad categories: characteristics of the female sex workers and intimate partner relationships; gender attitudes, social norms and violence acceptance; experience of intimate partner violence, solidarity and self-worth; and STI/HIV risk perceptions, skills for self-protection and condom use among female sex workers.
This report presents the findings of a global survey of 309 violence against women and girls (VAWG) stakeholders, including practitioners, policymakers, researchers and activists. The anonymous online survey was completed between August-September 2014, with the link sent out through various VAWG networks, listservs and Twitter contacts. The survey aims to help the What Works to Prevent Violence programme learn how best to communicate findings to key stakeholders, by generating information on knowledge and understanding of primary prevention and perceived barriers to evidence-based prevention. These findings will be used to directly inform and advance the What Works to Prevent Violence communications and research uptake strategies.