This factsheet is about how gender inequality fuels the HIV epidemic. Gender based violence (GBV) leads to a higher incidence of unsafe sex and a lower ability to negotiate condom use. Social norms around child marriage, age discordant relationships and early sexual debut can also affect HIV acquisition. Research indicates that economic dependence on male partners or family members makes women and girls more likely to acquire HIV. This factsheet looks at ways to empower women economically, and potentially barriers blocking the way. It also features case studies from around the world.