Main Results Report 2017
Violence against women and girls (VAWG) is a serious human rights violation and a significant global health and security issue. Studies suggest that the rates, perpetrators and types of VAWG fluctuate during conflict; and there is some evidence that sexual violence against both women and men increases during conflict. The global prevalence of sexual violence among refugees and displaced persons in humanitarian crises is estimated to be 21.4%, suggesting that approximately one in five women who are refugees or displaced by an emergency experience sexual violence. Recent studies indicate that intimate partner violence (IPV) may be more common than conflict-related sexual assault; however, both IPV and conflict-related violence are under-reported in these settings. Though several studies have collected robust data on VAWG in humanitarian settings, many experts argue that our overall understanding of the issue remains limited.
Globally, one in three women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetime (WHO 2013). In Afghanistan, recent demographic and health survey data (CSO 2017) indicates that the prevalence of intimate partner violence (emotional, physical or sexual) perpetrated against women aged 15 to 49 is 56%, ranging from between 7% and 92% across different provinces. Based on the baseline for an impact evaluation of Women for Women International’s programme in Afghanistan, this brief describes the factors associated with physical and emotional intimate partner violence. The brief is intended for employees of governmental and non-governmental organisations, and donors, interested in working to prevent violence against women before it occurs.
Globally, 17% of children are subjected to extreme forms of corporal punishment (UNICEF 2014). National level data in Afghanistan suggests that 78% of children aged 5 to 14 have experienced any violent psychological or physical discipline, and more than a third of children are subjected to extreme physical violence (UNICEF 2014). Based on the baseline study of a project implemented in Afghanistan by Help the Afghan Children, this brief describes the factors associated with violence at school, including children’s experience of corporal punishment by teachers and their experiences of peer violence victimisation or perpetration. The brief is intended for those working in governmental and nongovernmental organisations, and donors, interested in working to prevent violence against children.
Last month the Research to Action Roundtable series brought together a group of evaluators from the DFID-funded What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls programme. The panelists included Professor Tamsin Bradley (Evaluation Research Lead), Dr Sheena Crawford (Team Lead on Performance Evaluation), Katherine Liakos from IMC (project managers of the evaluation), and Megan Lloyd-Laney (Research Uptake Lead). The Roundtable comprised discussions of the objectives and approaches of the evaluation process, insights into challenges unique to a programme of this type as well as the broader learning outcomes that could be shared with the wider evaluation community.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) about the Communication Protocol for Research Uptake. This document outlines the best methods and best practice for sharing and supporting uptake of results with a wide but targeted audience including policy makers, donors, NGOs, academics and the general public, through multiple communication activities such as stakeholder forums, policy briefs, peer reviewed publications, conference papers, reports, blogs, twitter feeds, short videos, Facebook posts and the media. There are guidelines on use of language, logos, photographs and social media.
This is a database of 27 presentations delivered at the What Works Annual Scientific Meeting in Pretoria in July 2017. Presentations include subjects ranging from violence and disability, the role of poverty, effects of conflict, and violence against children. Other topics tackled include the prevalence, forms and types of violence, the economic cost of VAWG the importance of faith-based solutions, and violence in refugee camps
This report offers a comprehensive review of the annual What Works scientific meeting that took place over two days in July 2017 in Pretoria, South Africa. The meeting, and subsequent report, focused on the analysis of research from the previous year, and a study of how to use the research to influence VAWG policy and programming going forward. The meeting focused on four key thematic areas: Poverty and the Role of Economic Empowerment in VAWG Prevention; The Intersection Between Violence Against Women and Girls and Violence Against Children; Violence and Disabilities; and VAWG in Conflict and Humanitarian Settings. Other areas of interest included Emerging Findings in a Nutshell; Types and Prevalence of VAWG; and Synergies across projects.
This study presents the results of the formative research phase of a larger project that was funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and that was supported by the ‘What Works’ consortium to prevent violence against women and girls (VAWG). This project titled: “Utilising Innovative Media to End Violence against Women and Girls Through community Education and Outreach” was undertaken in the occupied Palestinian territories (oPt). It was implemented by Ma’an Network in strategic collaboration with 16 local partner non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the oPt. It focuses on all areas of the West Bank and Gaza. The formative research was carried out by the Arab World for Research and Development (AWRAD)…
This report covers the third capacity development workshop under the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls (VAWG) programme, held in Pretoria, South Africa from 3rd to 4th July 2017. It was an opportunity for implementers, researchers and technical staff to share learning and build skills across the programme. The workshop was structured around three broad themes: Building core skills on research uptake; relationship building and technical sharing between grantees and the What Works consortium members; and supporting south-to-south learning. This report summarises the highlights and key messages from each of the sessions.
The What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls Global Programme has carried out research to better understand how to prevent violence against women and girls living with disabilities, who are at an increased risk of violence, abuse, neglect, maltreatment and exploitation. Women and girls with disabilities also face additional pressures because they are regarded as unable to meet the social roles and expectations on women and girls to attract men, marry, bear children, or care for families. This can result in further social exclusion, which may contribute to development of depression or other mental illness, in addition to increasing their physical and economic vulnerabilities. While the evidence base is limited, this evidence brief identifies promising strategies to prevent violence against women girls with disabilities.
This report explores the key findings of a baseline quantitative household survey undertaken across 15 communities in Ituri Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in July 2015. The survey was conducted as part of the integrated research component of Tearfund’s project ‘Engaging with Faith Groups to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict-affected Communities’, which is funded by UK aid from the UK government as part of the What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls? Global Programme.
“ We never report when boys touch our private parts at school because we shall be punished by our teacher, and I am very scared of telling my parent.”
Ujamaa-‐Africa: Addressing Violence against Girls through a school based intervention in informal settlements in Nairobi.
Sexual violence is prevalent in many conflict-affected environments, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, where it is reported that 1.8 million women have been raped in their lifetime. According to the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Sexual Violence in Conflict, conflict-related sexual violence is one of the most critical challenges faced by the people and government of the DRC.
Under the £25 million What Works to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls programme, Tearfund was funded by the UK Government to implement a project – ‘Engaging with Faith Groups to Prevent Violence Against Women and Girls in Conflict-affected Communities’. This policy paper, drawing on research conducted by Tearfund, reveals that faith leaders indeed have unique reach and influence within conflict-affected communities and a mandate to speak into these issues. If mobilised and equipped, they could play a key role in more effective prevention of and response to VAWG.
Jewkes, R., Fulu, E., Naved, R. T., Chirwa, E., Dunkle, K., Haardörfer, R., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2017). Women’s and men’s reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women’s risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific. PLoS medicine, 14(9), e1002381.
Poverty is a key driver of intimate partner violence (IPV). Women living in poorer places with lower socio-economic status, higher food insecurity, and less access to education and work opportunities are more likely to experience IPV. In addition, women without economic and social resources find it harder to leave abusive relationships. To date, women’s economic empowerment interventions have been central to IPV prevention approaches. This evidence review, however, suggests that women’s involvement in economic interventions has mixed effects on their vulnerability to IPV and can in fact increase the risks of their experiencing IPV, especially in situations where women’s participation in paid economic activity is the exception to the norm. Evidence suggests that interventions that aim to increase women’s access to work need to focus simultaneously on socially empowering women and transforming community gender norms to maximize the positive impact of women’s work on women’s empowerment and help prevent VAWG.
Jewkes, R., Fulu, E., Tabassam Naved, R., Chirwa, E., Dunkle, K., Haardörfer, R., & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2017). Women's and men's reports of past-year prevalence of intimate partner violence and rape and women's risk factors for intimate partner violence: A multicountry cross-sectional study in Asia and the Pacific. PloS one, 14(9): e1002381
Violence against women (VAW) and violence against children (VAC) are violations of human rights and global public health priorities. Historically, work to address VAW and VAC have often occurred separately or in silos. This evidence note, however, draws attention to the growing body of evidence on the intersections of VAW and VAC, including risk factors, common social norms, co-occurrence, and the intergenerational cycle of abuse. It presents promising programmatic approaches to prevent and respond to both forms of violence; and policy recommendations, which include prioritising prevention efforts with adolescent girls that challenge gender norms and build girls’ agency.
Karmaliani, R., McFarlane, J., Somani, R., Khuwaja, H.M.A., Bhamani, S. S., Ali, T.S., Gulzar, S., Somani, Y., Chirwa, E.D. & Jewkes, R. (2017). Peer violence perpetration and victimizaion: Prevalence, associated factiors and pathways among 1752 sixth grade boys and girls in schools in Pakistan. PloS one, 12(8), e0180833